Re: [Frameworks] 35mm film will be dead by 2015 and News Corp

From: Steven Gladstone <>
Date: Mon, 21 Nov 2011 21:24:44 -0500

On 11/18/11 2:38 PM, Aaron F. Ross wrote:
> The rotating shutter was
> developed precisely because of the eyestrain of flicker, and it's
> only a partial solution.

Actually, the rotating shutter was invented in camera to cover the film
as it was transported, thus not having a smeary image. It has noting to
do with eyestrain.

Flicker at 24fps can be quite disturbing, which is why (film) projectors
have a two or three bladed shutter, the higher the flicker rate the less
noticeable to the conscious mind, the less distracting. The less
distracting, the more likely to allow the audience to slip into "Cinema"
watching (my interpretation of the process)

This is not an endorsement for higher and higher frame rates of
projection or capture.

Some cameras have a black stripe that bisects the mirror shutter of the
camera which increase the flicker rate to the cameraperson's eye while
shooting. Thus providing a less jarring image to the cameraperson.

The first motion picture cameras had what was known as a focal plane
shutter, and you viewed the image by focusing through the base of the
film. So I've been told. With 3 strip technicolor cameras this seems
highly impossible to create, with the single strip color film an
anti-reflective backing was added to the film, making it impossible to
focus on the image through the back of the film anyway.

Viewing was achieved by means of a Parallax viewfinder system. For
reflex viewing a beam splitter arrangement, was used. Both of these
systems provide a flicker free image to the camera operator. Arriflex
invented the mirror reflex shutter, using the mirror to both divert the
image to the viewing system while the film is being transported. Pretty
much all film cameras and projectors have a rotating shutter for when
the film is transported I think Imax may use some other system to
transport the film. The Eclair ACL did have a reciprocating mirrored
shutter - but that was only for viewing, the actual shutter for exposing
the film was a rotating focal plane shutter.

I hope this clears up the confusion about the origins of the rotating

Steven Gladstone
New York Based Cinematographer
Gladstone films
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Received on Mon Nov 21 2011 - 18:25:59 CST